So I was listening to the radio – not properly listening – but it was on in the background, and suddenly ‘Timothy Winters‘ came through.                               

There’s something incomparably satisfying about a poem you can join in with, because most of it has stuck indelibly in your mind decades ago – without your ever having to learn it. That’s ‘Timothy Winters’ by Cornish poet Charles Causley, who died in 2003, and whose poems will be remembered – or this one most certainly will.

Poets are highly preoccupied with the idea of being overlooked while alive, and forgotten when dead. You can mention the name ‘Charles Causley’ in a group of younger poets and see blank faces. But not in poets of a certain age. And not in those who studied his ballads at school. And even those who aren’t sure about the name ‘Charles Causley’ – you see them fumbling through the memory files when you mention him – try them on a line of ‘Timothy Winters’, and see what happens. ‘Ears like bombs and teeth like splinters: / A blitz of a boy is ….’

I think I met Causley in person once, but I was only in my teens, and now I can’t be sure. But I met ‘Timothy Winters’ before that, and he has always stayed close.

What a poem! And it illustrates another thing about poetry: its ability to educate – and I don’t just mean educate about socio-historic human deprivation. Who had ever heard the word ‘helves’ before they encountered

At Morning Prayers the Master helves
For children less fortunate than ourselves

My Picador Collected footnotes the word helves as Cornish dialect ‘the alarmed lowing of cattle (as when a cow is separated from her calf); a desperate, pleading note’. I always inferred it meant ‘appeals for help’, which suggests the sound of the word in context led to not inappropriate interpretation. I have never read the word elsewhere, but I’ve always remembered its strangeness, and its curious rightness in this poem. Not just there for the rhyme, I think, though rhyme it certainly does.

But most importantly of all, the poem ends ‘Amen’. To the many generations of UK children who were once closeted in daily school assemblies and enjoined to pray, ‘Amen’ meant the closing of something formal and the opening of doors. We had no idea of the meaning of ‘Amen’ in Hebrew, or that it was originally Hebrew at all. We just knew it signified the end, and the bit we could join in with, agree with – joyfully – if it meant getting on with something else that we hoped wouldn’t involve praying.

You can know what words mean without knowing what they mean.

But you can never write (or hear) a poem that ends on the word ‘amen’ without remembering Timothy Winters, and therefore Charles Causley: humane, metrical, melodic and haunting.

So come one Angel, come on ten:
Timothy Winters says ‘Amen
Amen amen amen amen.’
Timothy Winters, Lord.


  1. ‘And they say there aren’t boys like him anymore.’ This poem reads as though it went straight down on to the paper in one angry rush. Causley was good at nailing direct emotion without any scrap of sentimentality. I still remember how strongly a class of twelve-year olds responded to this poem.

  2. This poem was part of my ‘unseen’ for English A level a long, long time ago (!) although it’s often used with younger children. Hearing Charles Causley reading and commenting on it on the Poetry Archive is interesting – he says how astonished he is when people imagine he made Timothy Winters up. He’s a real boy. Which I suppose explains the power -that and C C’s flawless ear for ballads. Still the best poet ever for children.

  3. I didn’t grow up with Charles Casley or this poem. But wow. And it’s still terribly true.

  4. There’s a splendid version of ‘Timothy Winters’ sung by his distant relative Jim Causley.

  5. ‘Timothy Winters’ is on Jim Causley’s CD ‘Cyprus Well’…along with ‘Angel Hill’, ‘On All Souls’ Day’, ‘Who?’ and more. All great.

  6. Thanks, Jo, Jim Causley can be found on Youtube singing some of these but not ‘Timothy Winters’, so the only way to it is via the CD, it seems. But a good programme about Charles Causley featuring many well known contemp. poets is there, (though the actor who delivers Timothy Winters gets the last line wrong).

  7. There was a programme on 1st October on BBC4 which was lovely, though sadly not currently available on iplayer. Wonder if anyone recorded it?

    Would highly recommend the CD, he has a wonderful voice. The instrumentation is very sympathetic too.

  8. That programme’s available on a DVD. It’s called ‘The Poet Charles Causley’. Lovely it is, and it’s the one Nell says is on YouTube, but the DVD seems to be about 20 minutes longer and with the slightly different title.

  9. Just occurred, reading this, that my child brain had understood ‘helves’ as the master doom-tolling like a funeral bell. Like Hell’s bells, perhaps.

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